Posted in Design, Research, Social Change

A Most Religious State


Image: Wikimedia

According to Gallup Poll, Saudi Arabia is one of the most religious countries in the world (shown in dark red in the image above). This study also identifies a list of the top 11 religious countries. Surprisingly, Saudi Arabia did not make the list. This might be contributed to how the study was designed. It was based on the question: “Is religion an important part of your daily lif?”. Such a question has two fallacies; first, it investigates conciouse behavior and second it investigates individuals and not groups, regulated by religious cultures or states.

Subconcious Religious Behavior

The question in Gallup’s study investigates the number of individuals practicing religion, more likely in a conscious manner. Whereas it is possible that individuals subconsciously acount for their religious values in many aspects of their daily lives. Moreover, even those who discard their faith, are suceptable to holding religious values of their communities and past religious experiences if they had any. Author of “The Atheist Muslim“, explains how religion is infused within cultures and societal values and how it shapes people’s identity even after they lose their religious beliefs. As such, to measure how important religion is we need to consider these factors and not only concious behavior.

For the country of our concern here, Saudi Arabia, a suprising finding of another Gallup study states that atheists consitute 5% of Saudis. However, it is still possible that those individuals are experiencing the mixed identity as in “The Atheist Muslim“. This is particularly more likely to happen in highly religious states such as Saudi Arabia as clarified in the next section.



Religious Regulations

The question in Gallup’s study targetted individuals not states or regulations. For a country to be listed as a religous one, it is essential that both its  culture and governance system are based, fully or partially, on religious provisions. As such, if we were to investigate religious regulations, Saudi Arabia would certainly make the top ten list, if not the top five one.

The tribal system in Saudi Arabia is profoundly infused with religion. To the point that many of the common traditions now are under debate in terms of whether they are Islamic or just tribal traditions. As such, even for someone who is not particularly religious, they are expected to conform with their tribe’s traditions, which are mostly religious.

The governance system in Saudi Arabia derives its authority from Islamic (Sahria) law. According to the Saudi Basic Law of GovernanceIslamic provisions regulate, and are infused with, almost everything from eduacation, eonomy and judiciary, to media, national identity and social norms. In addition to being represnted in regulations, the Islamic identity of the state is represented in its mundane system such as public holidays, Hijri (Islamic) calendar and the expression of Islamic faith on the saudi flag. Consequently, these regulations made it certain that religion is entrenched in all aspects of Saudis’ lives.

Image: Pixbay. The Saudi flag holds the expression of faith “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of God”

Furthur more, in recent Saudi regulations, calling for atheist thought has become considered a terrorist offense:

“Calling for atheist thought in any form, or calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based.”

This might be due to the recent increase of Saudi social media users who have announced their apostasy. However, it is notable that the article above specified “calling for atheist thought” as an act of violating public order especially when associated with “question[ing] the fundamentals of the Islamic religion”. Whereas, apostasy per se, declairing oneself as an atheist, or converting to another faith, are not directly addressed in this article nor in the articles of the Basic Law.


To measure to what extent a contex is religious we need to understand both concious and subconcious religious behavior. Also, we need to understand the role of cultural and legal regulations in enforcing religious values as these factors although crucial seemed to be easily overlookedin Gallup’s study.

Designer’s Take on This Context

  • Understand whether your users are conciousely or unconciousely religious, or not.
  • Understand what ‘religious’ values they would always hold regardless of how religious they consider themselves.
  • When designing for social change, it is crucial to align the new change with religious values and not against them.
Posted in Design, Research

The Research/Design Process

UX designers go iteratively through four main phases: Assess, design, build, and evaluate. For each phase, there are a handful of methods and techniques (design activities) to be undertaken, they can be generally categorized as drawing, sound, movement, writing, discussion and game-based activities. They can focus on different themes including identity, spaces and places, society and politics. Below I break down these phases and list some of the methods and techniques used in each phase.


Continue reading “The Research/Design Process”

Posted in Design, Research

Don’t look for answers. Ask questions!


A question is defined as a problem, a matter of debate or discussion, a subject or doubt, or a matter to be inquired into. At early stages of our lives, we instinctively learn to explore the world by asking questions. No wonder that, according to studies, a 4-years old kid might ask their mother 390 questions a day. As we grow up, this curiosity seems to decrease and we start exploring the world by looking for ready-made answers. 

Moreover, at schools, students are rewarded for memorizing answers whereas asking questions is not unrewarded, but even mostly it is not taught. Waren Berger associates this to political agendas:

 … and why schools don’t teach or encourage questioning—is that questions challenge authority and disrupt established structures, processes, and systems, forcing people to have to at least think about doing something differently…

Continue reading “Don’t look for answers. Ask questions!”

Posted in Research

Methodology vs. methods, Philosophy vs. Paradigm, Tradition vs. approach


boy confused with lots of homework

Methodology and Methods

They might be used interchangeably, however, they each refer to different concepts. Although some PhD student might be immersed in the literature review in the beginning of their PhD to the point that they might postpone looking at methodology and methods to a later stage, however, it is crucial to define what methodology and methods to adopt in the research project as it could guide what literature to look at.

Continue reading “Methodology vs. methods, Philosophy vs. Paradigm, Tradition vs. approach”

Posted in Research

Logic, Criticality, Criticism and Critique




As a part of being a researcher, I quite often come across the term ‘critical thinking’ and how crucial it is in many or even all sections of the research. Sometimes, this term is confused with other terms; namely logical thinking, criticism and critiques. Therefore in this post, I will attempt to find the difference between them Continue reading “Logic, Criticality, Criticism and Critique”

Posted in Research

Get ready for the lit.rev nightmare!



The process of conducting the literature review for any research, particularly interdisciplinary research, is very messy and complex. Not only we have to spend a long time finding the right and relevant literature to incorporate in our research, and a long time to read, but also we need to carefully read and critically evaluate each piece. It is also a never-ending process, which means we will constantly be doing this along the way until we finish the whole research project in order to keep up with the latest literature. In this post I will attempt to collect some tips and strategies of preparing for this process. Continue reading “Get ready for the lit.rev nightmare!”

Posted in Research

The PhD delusion






So what is a PhD? is it a noble prize?

Lawton defines it as a “perfect small- scale piece of research or a worthwhile learning experience”. Whereas, as quoted in Mullins & Kiley ,”A PhD is three years of solid work, not a Nobel Prize”. Peter & Rugg describes a PhD simply as a ‘research training’ and a ‘demonstration of research competence’. Continue reading “The PhD delusion”